Real-time I/O is important in embedded systems as many of the systems are used for Process Control. There are 2 approaches to handling real-time: 1) the Kernel Approach: using RTAI, Xenomi, or PREEMPT_RT and 2) the Hardware Approach: Embedded Micro, FPGA/CPLD (programmable logic). This session will cover the current status of Real-time I/O, and discuss the technical merits of both Kernel and Hardware approaches to handling Real-time I/O and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Current best practices also will be discussed with examples of Latency and Jitter in Real-time I/O and how they effect performance and outcome of processes controlled by the Linux System. Examples will be from 3D printing and light CNC.